References and Links
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON
|Semester/Year: Spring 1999
||Office Location: TSA 113
|Semester Hours of Credit: 3
||Office Phone: 486-1945
|Instructor: Dr. John I. Brooks III
||Alternate Phone (Dept.): 486-1573
|Class Meeting Days, Time, and Location:
|MWF 1200-1250, TS 101
||Office Hours: MWF
1000-1050, MW 1400-1600, TR 1100-1200
|Course Web Page: http://www.uncfsu.edu/w4/fac/jbrooks/Tchng/h451.htm
||This course will investigate the political, social,
intellectual and economic factors which led to the French Revolution. It will trace the
progress of the Revolution from its beginning in 1789 through the Napoleonic era. Students
will examine the institutions of Old Regime France and their problems during the
eighteenth century. They will trace the development of the ideas of the Enlightenment in
France and their contribution to the revolutionary ferment. The course will then follow
the sequence of events by which the Revolution emerged and their effect on the various
institutions of France. It will examine in detail the various stages of the Revolution in
order to investigate questions still debated by historians. Was the Terror was an
aberration in the Revolution or a logical consequence of its initial events? Was Napoleon
the preserver or the destroyer of the Revolution? To understand such questions, students
will investigate recent debates among historians over the interpretation of the
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- Baker, Keith, ed. Readings in Western Civilization, Vol. 7:
The Old Regime and the French Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
- Kates, Gary, ed. The French Revolution: Recent Debates and New
Controversies. New York: Routledge, 1998.
- Popkin, Jeremy. A Short History of the French Revolution. 2d ed.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1998.
||This class is a senior-level class, which means that
it represents an effort on the part of both students and faculty to round out the training
of undergraduate historians. By the end of this class all students should have the
following knowledge and skills:
- the major institutions of Old Regime France, their problems and
- the Enlightenment and its effect on the Old Regime and Revolution;
- the causes of the revolutionary crisis;
- a detailed understanding of the stages and events of the revolutionary
phenomenon in France during the ten-year period at the close of the eighteenth century and
the first fifteen years of the nineteenth;
- historiographical issues in the interpretation of the French Revolution.
- ability to analyze critically a variety of source materials, both
primary and secondary;
- ability to read critically historiographical essays on the French
- ability to construct both a historical narrative and a work of critical
- ability to prepare and present an essay on some phase of the origins or
early events of the French Revolution or the age of Napoleon;
- ability to work with others to present and debate historical issues.
This course meets the following National Council for Accreditation of
Teacher Education and National Council for Social Studies Program Standards in Social
Studies: 1.2, 1.3, 1.9, 2.1.
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||Grades will be based on the assignments listed
below. Assignments will be weighted as follows:
|Research Paper and Presentation
*Team Assignment: 50% of the grade depends on the
overall quality of team work.
||Grades and their numerical equivalents are as
|92 or above
|63 or below
||Attendance and participation, described below, will
affect students' grades. Poor attendance (more than 3 absences for TR classes, 5 for MWF
classes) and participation can lower a student's calculated grade by up to one full letter
grade; good attendance and participation can raise the grade by the same amount.
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OUTLINE AND ASSIGNMENT SCHEDULE
||Readings for specific dates will be
announced in class. They may vary slightly from the following table as the pace of the
class dictates. Students are responsible for keeping up with any such changes, which will
also be posted on this web site.
Underlined readings are
links to web sites. Students are responsible for learning how to use the World Wide Web to
get readings. Students should print out copies of the readings to bring to class. Plan
ahead--the Web is a great learning resource, but glitch happens. Do not tell me you could
not get the reading because the server went down ten minutes before class. Study questions
for each week will be available aproximately one week before the reading is
||Topic: Readings (ASSIGNMENT)
||Introduction to the Class; Overview; The Terms of
the Debate: Popkin, ch. 1, ch. 9; Kates, Introduction. (Team
Assignments | Study Questions)
||MARTIN LUTHER KING JR BIRTHDAY OBSERVED--NO CLASS
||The Old Regime--Corporatism and Absolutism:
Loyseau, Treatise on Orders, Baker 13-31; Bossuet, Politics Derived from the
Words of Holy Scripture, Baker 31-47.
Historiography--Marxism: Soboul, "The French Revolution in the
History of the Contemporary World," Kates ch. 1. (Team
Assignments | Study Questions)
||The Old Regime--Contradictions and Conflicts:
"A Royal Tongue-Lashing," Baker 47-50; "Remonstrance of the Cour des
Aides," Baker 51-70; "Protests of the Parlement of Paris," Baker
118-23; Popkin, ch. 1.
Historiography--Early Revisionism: Lucas, "Nobles, Bourgeois,
and the Origins of the French Revolution," Kates, ch. 2. (Team Assignments | Study Questions)
||The Enlightenment: Diderot, "The
Definition of an Encyclopedia," Baker 71-89; Rousseau, The Social Contract.
The Financial Crisis and the Assembly of Notables: "Proceedings
of the Assembly of Notables" and "Parlementary Opposition," Baker 124-43;
Popkin, ch. 2. (Team Assignments | Study Questions)
||From Estates General to National Assembly:
Sieyès, "What Is the Third Estate?," "Regulations for the Convocation of
the Estates General," "Dispatches from Paris," "Deliberations at the
Estates General," Baker 154-208. (Team Assignments |
||The Declaration of the Rights of Man: The
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, Baker 237-39.
Historiography--"Neoconservative" Revisionism: Baker,
"The Idea of a Declaration of Rights," Kates, ch. 4.
Historiography--Neo-Liberal Revisionism: Sewell, "A Rhetoric
of Bourgeois Revolution," Kates, ch. 5. (Team Assignments
| Study Questions)
||The Abolition of Feudalism: "Peasant
Grievances," "Reports of Popular Unrest," "Decrees of the National
Assembly," Baker 208-37.
Historiography--Neo-Liberal Revisionism: Markoff, "Violence,
Emancipation, and Democracy," Kates, ch. 8. (Team Assignments
| Study Questions)
||HISTORIOGRAPHICAL DEBATE AND MIDTERM QUIZ
||SPRING BREAK--NO CLASS
||The Constituent Assembly: "The Civil
Constitution of the Clergy," Viefvilles des Essars, "On the Emancipation of the
Negroes," "The Constitution of 1791," Baker Popkin, ch. 3
Historiography: Tackett, "Nobles and Third Estate in the
Revolutionary Dynamic of the National Assembly," Kates, ch. 7.
||The Demise of the Monarchy and the Rise of
Popular Politics: "The King's Flight and Popular Politics," Baker 269-86;
"The Revolution of 10 August 1792," Baker 290-96; "The King's Trial,"
Baker 302-24; Popkin, ch. 4-5.
|Mar 29-Apr 2
||Women and the Revolution: "The 'October
Days,'" Baker 231-37; Olympe de Gouges, "Declaration of the Rights of
Women," Baker 261-68; "French Women Address the National Assembly," Popkin.
Historiography--Women's Studies and Gender Studies: Hunt, "The
Many Bodies of Marie Antoinette," Kates, ch. 9; Hufton, "In Search of
Counter-Revolutionary Women," Kates, ch. 10
||The Terror: "Documents of the
Sans-Culottes," "Decree Establishing the Levée en Masse," "'Make
Terror the Order of the Day," "The Law of Suspects," Baker 330-54;
"The Revolutionary Calender," Baker 362-68; The Festival of the Supreme
Being," Baker 384-92; Popkin, ch. 5
||The Directory: "Manifesto of the
Directors," Baker; Popkin, ch. 6
Napoleon: Bonaparte, Speeches to his Troops; Bonaparte, Letter
to the Executive Directory, "The Coup d'Etat of 18 Brumaire,"
"Napoleonic Ideas," Baker 404-27; Bonaparte, Account of the Internal Situation in
France; Popkin, ch. 7-8.
Historiography--"Neoconservative" Revisionism: Furet,
"Napoleon Bonaparte," Kates, ch. 11.
||Assessment and Review: Burke, Reflections
on the Revolution in France, Baker 428-45; Constant, Ancient and Modern Liberty
Compared, Baker 452-61; Tocqueville, The Old Regime and the French Revolution; Furet,
"The French Revolution Revisited," Kates, ch. 3.
||1100-1250: Research Presentations (FINAL PAPERS
||Back to Contents
||Students are responsible for all work assigned in
this class, whether or not they are present. Assignments are expected to be completed on
time, and all students are expected to participate regularly in class discussions.
Students responsible for a reading must come to class with a completed
Primary Source Analysis form on the date assigned. They must be prepared to lead a
discussion of the document in question. Late work will not be accepted for this
Team assignments for this class must be completed in study teams of
four students each. Teams are collectively responsible for the assignment. 50% of the
grade is based on the individual student's work; the other 50% is based on the overall
quality of the team assignment.
The research paper for this class must address a historiographical
issue connected with the French Revolution.
You can access guidelines for the
assignments by going to the following pages:
Work, Rewrites, and Make-Up Assignments
|Students are responsible for all work assigned in this class, whether
or not they are present. Assignments must be completed on time. Late work will be
penalized one letter grade unless you have a good excuse, and no assignments will be
accepted more than one week late. The Source Analysis will not be accepted late.
Students may rewrite one assignment on which they receive a grade below
C. The rewrite grade replaces the original grade. No rewrites are permitted on the final
examination or on any work due the last week of class.
Teams may also rewrite team assignments to bring the team grade up to
C. If an individual portion of a team assignment is below C, the student responsible for
that portion may rewrite it without penalty. The rewrite grade replaces the original
For both individual and team assignments, rewrites are due one week
after the instructor hands graded assignments back to the class, whether or not you attend
class that day.
Make-ups for missed examinations and quizzes are given at the
discretion of the instructor. The absence must be excused under the same conditions as
absence from class (discussed below). In general, make-ups must be taken within one week
of the original date of the exam.
|Regular attendance is expected in this class. Poor
attendance will affect grades as described above. Tardiness disrupts the class and is also
discouraged. Any student arriving after the instructor has finished calling the roll may
be considered tardy, and two incidents of unexcused tardiness count as one unexcused
absence. Students are expected to remain in class until they are dismissed, unless they
have received prior permission from the instructor to leave early. Early departure from
class will be treated the same as tardiness--two such occurrences will constitute an
Excuses for tardiness and absence
will be accepted at the discretion of the instructor. Written documentation may be
required, especially for lengthy or repeated problems. Students should bring excuses to
the instructor's attention as soon as possible--before the event if it is foreseeable,
immediately after if not. Excuses for tardiness should be discussed with the instructor
immediately after the class for which the student is tardy; excuses for absence should be
discussed the first day the student returns to class. With rare exceptions, EXCUSES WILL
NOT BE ACCEPTED AFTER THESE DATES.
Note on Academic Honesty
|Students should be aware that a university is a
community of scholars committed to the discovery and dissemination of knowledge and truth.
Without freedom to investigate all materials, scrupulous honesty in reporting findings,
and proper acknowledgment of credit, such a community can not survive. Students are
expected to adhere to the highest traditions of scholarship. Infractions of these
traditions, such as plagiarism (cheating), are not tolerated. Misrepresenting someone
else's words or ideas as one's own constitutes plagiarism. In cases where plagiarism
occurs, the instructor has the right to penalize the student(s) as he or she thinks
appropriate. One guideline holds that the first offence results in failure of the
assignment, the second offence in failure of the course.
Team assignments require a special note. Each member of the study team is
expected to contribute to the assignment. Every member of the team gets the same grade for
the assignment. A student who does not contribute is essentially misrepresenting someone
else's words and ideas as one's own. This is academic dishonesty, and it will be treated
|All students are expected to come to class prepared
to discuss the assigned material. This implies that students should read the material
before class. Perfect comprehension is not expected at the beginning of class, but
students should be familiar with the topic and the major points, and they should have
identified areas they do not understand well enough to ask focused, intelligent questions
about them. The instructor reserves the right to give unannounced quizzes or other
assignments to check students' preparation.
are three principal ways students can participate: by asking and answering questions in
class, by contributing to their team, and by discussing courses material with the
instructor during office hours.
Students are expected to observe normal courtesy in class. They are
expected to pay attention to the instructor, to take detailed notes, to refrain from
personal conversation, and to avoid any other behavior that disturbs others. A student who
does not observe these courtesies may be asked to leave the room.
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||This class will function as a seminar, which is a
special kind of course. The word "seminar" comes from the German language and is
defined as a group of scholars, usually led by a senior scholar, engaged in the study of a
specific topic. Seminars are directed toward advanced students in history who are trying
to round out a major field, and who are often preparing for graduate studies as well.
Students in this class will acquire not only a substantial knowledge of the French
revolutionary period, its antecedents, and its realization through the conquests of
Napoleon, but they will also acquire a working knowledge of some of the most important
tools of historians, and of the varieties of history produced by scholars. These tools
include setting up and annotating a bibliography, evaluating and using a variety of
sources, and ultimately constructing a work of original scholarship. Students should also
be able to use in their work the tools of other disciplines in drawing historically
AND LINKS Internet Sources
||Internet sources on European history
may be found on the Links page.
|For an excellent bibliography of printed sources,
see the "Suggestions for Further Reading" in Popkin. The Links page also
contains a link to an extensive bibliography by Colin Jones.
||Last Updated: 26 January 1999